In the Foraker Act of 1900, the U.S. Congress established Puerto Rico's status as an unincorporated territory. Most of the settlers came from Protestant backgrounds in England and Western Europe, with a small proportion of Catholics (chiefly in Maryland) and a few Jews in port cities. New Englanders wrote journals, pamphlets, books, and especially sermons—more than all of the other colonies combined. [157] Much of the population consisted of young, single, white indentured servants and, as such, the colonies lacked social cohesiveness, to a large degree. They brewed themselves some tea, sweetened it with sugar and drank it from porcelain cups. These groups all became part of the United States when it gained its independence in 1776. [51], Georgia was established on strict moralistic principles. As the colonies developed in the south, cheap slave labor was needed to … The first major influx of settlers were the Scotch Irish who headed to the frontier. In 1750, blacks made up about 10 percent of the population of New York and Philadelphia. The duty was a penny on the shilling, or three pence per pound. New Spain included territories in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, much of the United States west of the Mississippi River, parts of Latin America (including Puerto Rico), and the Spanish East Indies (including Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands). In 1676, Bacon's Rebellion occurred, but was suppressed by royal officials. In the 17th century the principal component of the population in the colonies was of English origin, and the second largest group was of African heritage. However the Dutch landholdings remained, and the Hudson River Valley maintained a traditional Dutch character until the 1820s. That is, white men became politically much more equal than was possible without a population of low-status slaves. They initially moved to the Netherlands, then decided to re-establish themselves in America. Theater was more developed in the Southern colonies, especially South Carolina, but nowhere did stage works attain the level of Europe. The Spanish and Portuguese centuries-old experience of conquest and colonization during the Reconquista, coupled with new oceanic ship navigation skills, provided the tools, ability, and desire to colonize the New World. It brought Christianity to the slaves and was a powerful event in New England that challenged established authority. On a more local level, governmental power was invested in county courts, which were self-perpetuating (the incumbents filled any vacancies and there never were popular elections). Colonists in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island continued to subdivide their land between farmers; the farms became too small to support single families, and this threatened the New England ideal of a society of independent yeoman farmers. [54], The Dutch colony of New Netherland was taken over by the English and renamed New York. Colonists imported much more than they exported so, the … The business venture was financed and coordinated by the London Virginia Company, a joint stock company looking for gold. 14 to 16 percent remained Anglican but were declining in number, and the remaining 2 percent of the churches were Catholic. Tea did not begin as a necessity for England, though it quickly became one. By 1729, the proprietary government had collapsed, and the Proprietors sold both colonies back to the British crown. The British crown often turned to the inexpensive yet strongly built American ships. David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick, eds., Alison. The English and the Germans brought along multiple Protestant denominations. Their freedom from most of the feudal inheritances of western Europe, and the self-reliance they necessarily acquired in subduing nature, made them highly individualistic. ", David J. Weber,"The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux. The Commission of Trade was set up in 1625 as the first special body convened to advise on colonial (plantation) questions. Laborers stood at the bottom of seaport society. [69] Historian Timothy Breen explains that horse racing and high-stakes gambling were essential to maintaining the status of the gentry. [15][16], Throughout the 16th century, Spain explored the southwest from Mexico, with the most notable explorer being Francisco Coronado, whose expedition rode throughout modern New Mexico and Arizona, arriving in New Mexico in 1540. Gilson, Nathan B. This vast tract was first settled at Mobile and Biloxi around 1700, and continued to grow when 7,000 French immigrants founded New Orleans in 1718. The prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. In 1691, governor Sir Francis Nicholson organized competitions for the "better sort of Virginians onely who are Batchelors," and he offered prizes "to be shot for, wrestled, played at backswords, & Run for by Horse and foott. Accordingly, most adults were married, children were numerous, and families containing 10 or more members were common. Textile imports declined during the 1830s. Thousands of poor German farmers, chiefly from the Palatine region of Germany, migrated to upstate districts after 1700. Title page from “An accurate description of the recently founded province of Pennsylvania” by Francis Daniel Pastorius, who established the first German settlement in the colonies, 1700. [61], Rice cultivation in South Carolina became another major commodity crop. [73], At first, South Carolina was politically divided. Each city and most towns had private academies for the children of affluent families. [44], Randall Miller points out that "America had no titled aristocracy... although one aristocrat, Lord Thomas Fairfax, did take up residence in Virginia in 1734. These governments were all subordinate to the King of England, with no explicit relationship with the British Parliament. It was not so good for the colonists, though, and especially bad for … By the mid-18th century in New England, shipbuilding was a staple, particularly as the North American wilderness offered a seemingly endless supply of timber. [24] The majority of the population in Puerto Rico was illiterate (83.7%) and lived in poverty, and the agricultural industry—at the time, the main source of income—was hampered by lack of road infrastructure, adequate tools and equipment, and natural disasters, including hurricanes and droughts. In 1763, Louisiana was ceded to Spain around New Orleans and west of the Mississippi River. Boston minister Cotton Mather published Magnalia Christi Americana (The Great Works of Christ in America, 1702), while revivalist Jonathan Edwards wrote his philosophical work A Careful and Strict Enquiry Into...Notions of...Freedom of Will... (1754). By 1700, Philadelphia was exporting 350,000 bushels of wheat and 18,000 tons of flour annually. Literature in the European sense was nearly nonexistent, with histories being far more noteworthy. By the time of the Revolutionary War, approximately 85 percent of white Americans were of English, Irish, Welsh, or Scottish descent. In England, hunting was sharply restricted to landowners and enforced by armed gamekeepers. In Ireland, people farmed intensively, working small pieces of land trying to get the largest possible production-rate from their crops. [51], The top five percent or so of the white population of Virginia and Maryland in the mid-18th century were planters who possessed growing wealth and increasing political power and social prestige. Leaders such as George Washington strongly endorsed tolerance for them and indeed for all denominations.[121]. [92] Fewer than one-percent of British men could vote, whereas a majority of American freemen were eligible. Blacksmiths, wheelwrights, and furniture makers set up shops in rural villages. It also began imposing tighter control on colonial governments. Other farmers became agricultural innovators. [95] They handled land grants, commercial subsidies, and taxation, as well as oversight of roads, poor relief, taverns, and schools. Decade by decade they became less European in habit and outlook and more American—the frontier in particular setting its stamp on them. After its founding, other settlers traveled from England to join the colony. They sought to reform the Church of England by creating a new, pure church in the New World. After 1720, mid-Atlantic farming stimulated with the international demand for wheat. Slavery was officially forbidden, as were alcohol and other forms of immorality. Others relied upon the minister-physicians, barber-surgeons, apothecaries, midwives, and ministers; a few used colonial physicians trained either in Britain or an apprenticeship in the colonies. [89], The primary political cultures of the United States had their origins in the colonial period. They funded sawmills that supplied cheap wood for houses and shipbuilding. [130], The Congregational Church which the Puritans founded was not automatically joined by all New England residents because of Puritan beliefs that God singled out specific people for salvation. Art and drama were somewhat more successful than literature. Printing was expensive, and most publications focused on purely practical matters, such as major news, advertisements, and business reports. New England was almost entirely English, in the southern colonies the English were the most numerous of the settlers of European origin, and in the middle colonies the population was much mixed, but even Pennsylvania had more English than German settlers. High death rates and a very young population profile characterized the colony during its first years. The city of Philadelphia became a major center of furniture-making because of its massive wealth from Quaker and British merchants. The American population doubled every generation. In the American colonies, settlers from northern Ireland focused on mixed-farming. The main population elements included Quaker population based in Philadelphia, a Scotch Irish population on the Western frontier, and numerous German colonies in between. One side of the ground floor contained a hall, a general-purpose room where the family worked and ate meals. In 1620 the ship the Mayflower carried about 100 Pilgrim Separatists to what is now Massachusetts, where the Plymouth colony took root. Most music had a religious theme, as well, and was mainly the singing of Psalms. Maine remained a part of Massachusetts until achieving statehood in 1820. In the late 16th century, England, France, Castile, and the Dutch Republic launched major colonization programs in America. They also operated presidios (forts), pueblos (settlements), and ranchos (land grant ranches), along the southern and central coast of California. [67], Sports occupied a great deal of attention at every social level, starting at the top. In a short time the colonists pushed from the Tidewater strip toward the Appalachians and finally crossed the mountains by the Cumberland Gap and Ohio River. Providence Plantation was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams on land provided by Narragansett sachem Canonicus. [43][52] In 1637, a second group including Anne Hutchinson established a second settlement on Aquidneck Island, also known as Rhode Island. [108], Mortality was high for infants and small children, especially from diphtheria, yellow fever, and malaria. Local Indians expelled the Spanish for 12 years following the Pueblo Revolt of 1680; they returned in 1692 in the bloodless reoccupation of Santa Fe. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses so that gold and silver would pour into London. [94], Second, a very wide range of public and private business was decided by elected bodies in the colonies, especially the assemblies and county governments in each colony. Laws could be examined by the British Privy Council or Board of Trade, which also held veto power of legislation. The remainder of New France became part of Canada, with the exception of the French island of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Socially, the colonial elite of Boston, New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia saw their identity as British. The Caribs, a raiding tribe of the Caribbean, attacked Spanish settlements along the banks of the Daguao and Macao rivers in 1514 and again in 1521 but each time they were easily repelled by the superior Spanish firepower. In addition, many people were sent to America against their will—convicts, political prisoners, and enslaved Africans. [23] Also, early in the colonization of Puerto Rico, attempts were made to wrest control of Puerto Rico from Spain. [56], Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 as a proprietary colony of Quaker William Penn. Their Separatist faith motivated their move from Europe. This had been emerging during the French-Indian War, but now issues of representation, taxation, and liberty began to take center stage. [30] The peak population was less than 10,000. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The first colonists arrived in 1733. By the mid-18th century, Pennsylvania was basically a middle-class colony with limited deference to the small upper-class. The great majority went to sugarcane-growing colonies in the Caribbean and to Brazil, where life expectancy was short and the numbers had to be continually replenished. [14] Notable British raids on St. Augustine were James Moore's 1702 raid and James Oglethorpe's 1740 siege. They sought election to the House of Burgesses or appointment as justice of the peace.[65]. American colonies, also called thirteen colonies or colonial America, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in what is now a part of the eastern United States. New Sweden (Swedish: Nya Sverige) was a Swedish colony that existed along the Delaware River Valley from 1638 to 1655 and encompassed land in present-day Delaware, southern New Jersey, and southeastern Pennsylvania. A large chimney stood in the middle of the house that provided cooking facilities and warmth during the winter. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and as feed for hogs and other livestock. Merchants then exported them to the West Indies, where they were traded for molasses, sugar, gold coins, and bills of exchange (credit slips). [136], John Hull "the earliest scholar who can now be named of Philemon Pormort, whose school, the only one in Boston, the first school of public instruction in Massachusetts ", Boston Latin School.[137][138]. That part was perfectly normal. They were the largest group of colonists from the British Isles before the American Revolution. There were fears that Britain intended to … The “melting pot” began to boil in the colonial period, so effectively that Gov. [25] The economy also suffered from increasing tariffs and taxes imposed by the Spanish Crown. Early colonists such as the Puritans and Quakers viewed food differently than we do in moder… Hundreds of New England shipwrights built oceangoing ships, which they sold to British and American merchants. In German communities in Pennsylvania, however, many women worked in fields and stables. (1764-1765) Cuts the import tax on molasses in an attempt to deter colonial distillers from smuggling molasses from the French, but also imposes new import duties on textiles, wine, coffee, indigo, and sugar in order to raise new revenue from the colonists However, large numbers of Dutch remained in the colony, dominating the rural areas between New York City and Albany. Proprietary colonies were territories granted by the Crown to be owned by a person or family to govern as they wanted, and they were typically appointed by the governor. Pennsylvania (which included Delaware), New Jersey, and Maryland were proprietary colonies. Ministers who used this new style of preaching were generally called "new lights", while the traditional-styled preachers were called "old lights". The colony also had settlements near the present-day location of Salem, New Jersey (Fort Nya Elfsborg) and on Tinicum Island, Pennsylvania. Practical considerations played their parts, such as commercial enterprise, over-crowding, and the desire for freedom of religion. Breakfast – 6am – 7am 2. It was at the Roanoke Colony that Virginia Dare became the first English child born in America; her fate is unknown. Tobacco was not important here; farmers focused on hemp, grain, cattle, and horses. The role of wives was to raise and nurture healthy children and support their husbands. 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