Spaces by each part allow notes on existing conditions and repair instructions. A wide variety of products are available to assist in this task. A whole new stile would have taken 1.5 hours and used $4.00 in materials. So, I consider these more modern methods to have a proven service life measured in decades. 40 Ceramic Tile The operation of the window (continuous opening and closing over the years and seasonal temperature changes) weakens the joints, causing movement and slight separation. Whole Part Renewal: Remove the broken stile from the sash. The process has been widely used and proven in marine applications; and proprietary products are available at hardware and marine supply stores. "Sealing Leaky Windows." Make an all new stile to match the old exactly in size, shape and function, including mortises and glazing rabbet. 47 Maintaining the Exterior 46 Gas Stations Most windows should not require the extensive repairs discussed in this section. Sash can be removed and repaired in a convenient work area. The visual impact of storms may be minimized by selecting colors which match existing trim color. No amount or quality of specification can do it because an Act of Creation cannot be specified. The repairs discussed in this section involve window frames which may be in very deteriorated condition, possibly requiring removal; therefore, caution is in order. Fit the new stile onto the sash and fasten it at the mortise and tenon joints with wooden pegs. When comparing thermal performance, the lower the U-value the better the performance. The sill, joints between the sill and jamb, corners of the bottom rails and muntin joints are typical points where water collects and deterioration begins. You can’t. Assess Conditions (see top image) During the window conditions assessment, I noted this broken joint between the meeting rail and the stile of the upper sash and scheduled the sash to be pulled and taken to the shop for repair. The neglect of these routine items can contribute to many common window problems. conduct regular maintenance of sound frames to achieve the longest life possible, make necessary repairs in place, wherever possible, using stabilization and splicing techniques, and. We proudly craft classic wood storm windows with a modern twist. Each window should be examined for operational soundness beginning with the lower portions of the frame and sash. Repairing Weather Checks in a Wood Window Sill Glue would limit that flexibility and trap moisture leading to decay. Armed with an awareness of the significance of the existing window, begin to search for a replacement which retains as much of the character of the historic window as possible. Here are some resources to help you find them: Check with your state’s historic preservation office and state-wide non-profit preservation organization. 15 Concrete If such a firm does not exist locally, there are firms which undertake this kind of repair and ship nationwide. So, by simply opting to repair a window instead of buying a replacement, you're already saving money. As a project planner or designer you select a product, a contractor buys the product and a tradesperson installs the product. Historically, the first windows in early American houses were casement windows; that is, they were hinged at the side and opened outward. 16 Substitute Materials The same caution about proper slope for flat surfaces applies to this technique. A craftsman uses his skill and knowledge of basic materials, wood and epoxy resin, to create something that did not exist before: an effective repair. 41 Seismic Rehabilitation I can assure you that failures outnumber successes. Pressure on the probe can force it through an apparently sound skin to penetrate deeply into decayed wood. Repairing historic wood windows can be achieved with a step-by-step process. Eldon Lindamood worked along with me as an intern craftsman. In any evaluation, one should note at a minimum: Many factors such as poor design, moisture, vandalism, insect attack, and lack of maintenance can contribute to window deterioration, but moisture is the primary contributing factor in wooden window decay. Site-specific, regionally oriented architectural comparisons should be made to determine the significance of windows in question. Simpler patterns are easier to repair, while more complex designs—windows with a curved pattern, for example—require more dexterity. So, how do you get this creative preservation work done on your projects? On larger projects it presents the opportunity for time and money which might otherwise be spent on the removal and replacement of existing windows, to be spent on repairs, subsequently saving all or part of the material cost of new window units. It's really up to the carpenter to learn what quality is and to apply outside-the-box thinking and skills. The stripping should be positioned so the flange faces the outside of the widow (the fasteners are on the inside of the frame and widow bottom. remove paint with specialized tool. Follow through with effective supervision to assure the work matches the samples. Learn More. This illustrates a two-part expoxy patching compound used to fill the surface of a weathered sill and rebuild the missing edge. The sash can be refinished as desired on the inside and painted on the outside as soon as a "skin" has formed on the putty, usually in 2 or 3 days. Repair Class III: Splices and Parts Replacement 6. We provide repair, preservation, and restoration services to residential, commercial, municipal, churches and cathedrals, and historic and landmark buildings throughout the United States. Get your old windows repaired / restored and shine like new. Home / How To Advice / Windows / Historic Wood Windows / Repairing wood windows. Even though we’re repairing a historic home with like-kind materials, we can use a mixture of old and modern building practices to create a quality end result that will stand the test of time. There are several safe and effective techniques for removing paint from wood, depending on the amount of paint to be removed. Following the relatively simple repairs, the window is weathertight, like new in appearance, and serviceable for many years to come.Photo: NPS files. Step 1: Split and broken wood in the joint of the meeting rail and stile. I definitely match the ring orientation, here on a slanting diagonal. Wood Dutchman: Remove the stile from the sash by drifting out the wooden pegs and disassembling the mortise and tenon joints. This publication has been prepared pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to develop and make available information concerning historic properties. Previous owners had neglected routine upkeep, such … This is an act of product INSTALLATION. Repairable – Historic wood windows are designed to be easy to repair. after a "skin" forms on the putty, paint the surface. They can last 200+ years. The wood-epoxy repair method would have taken the same time and used $6.50 in materials. 25 Signage I can chop out up to four mortises with a chisel and mallet in the time it would take to set up my mortising machine. This technique is especially useful for checking sills where visual access to the underside is restricted. However, even if historic windows are beyond repair and replacements are the only viable option, there are many factors to consider. Repair and refinishing of the frame may proceed concurrently with repairs to the sash, taking advantage of the curing times for the paints and putty used on the sash. (WindowStandards.org). The sill should be examined to insure that it slopes downward away from the building and allows water to drain off. (ptn.org), The Window Preservation Standards book offers guidance in organizing window projects and provides a set of detailed standard methods and procedures. The pane is then pressed into place and the glazing points are pushed into the wood around the perimeter of the pane. Detailed technical advice is provided on their maintenance, repair and thermal upgrading as well as on their restoration. There are many sources of suitable new windows. Caulking of the joints between the sill and the jamb will help reduce further water penetration. For a repair like the one above, to simply specify the installation of a particular wood product, and a particular adhesive product, would not give you any assurance of an effective durable repair. Step. Call us 857-226-0007 to schedule an appointment and get free estimate. Attempt to understand the contribution of the window(s) to the appearance of the facade including: Develop an understanding of how the window reflects the period, style, or regional characteristics of the building, or represents technological development. An advantage is that we can now easily take apart the sash for repairs. Exterior paint should cover the beveled glazing compound or putty and lap over onto the glass slightly to complete a weather-tight seal. Continue looking until an acceptable replacement can be found. Wood may also be strengthened and stabilized by consolidation, using semirigid epoxies which saturate the porous decayed wood and then harden. Photo: NPS files. First, select the skilled, knowledgeable creative craftsperson who knows how to use basic materials to provide known and proven results. While it may be expensive for the average historic home owner to pay seventy dollars or more for a mill to grind a custom knife to duplicate four or five bad muntins, that cost becomes negligible on large commercial projects which may have several hundred windows. reflect period or regional styles or building practices, reflect changes to the building resulting from major periods or events, or. It is a false economy not to get the best advice before having work carried out. Repair of Historic Windows Replacement of historic wooden windows has become a thriving industry. It’s true, the power tools could step up the production rate if there are dozens of dutchmen to do at the same time, but here I used hand work because it is more controlled and less likely to damage the original wood. 43 Historic Structure Reports It is important to protect the glass because it may be historic and often adds character to the window. Washington, DC: Technical Preservation Services, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1982. Early American Architecture. They are located all across this great land. Though it is rarely necessary to do so, historic windows can be disassembled. 5 Adobe Buildings This would result in “open joints” that could be disassembled in the future. It is now hoping to raise $60,000 to repair the broken glass. Costs: This repair using the dutchman method took 1.1 hours (66 minutes) and used $1.90 in materials. Their design, craftsmanship, or other qualities may make them worthy of preservation. 14 Exterior Additions After removing any paint along the seam, the parting bead should be carefully pried out and worked free in the same manner as the interior stop. When using any technique of building up or patching a flat surface, the finished surface should be sloped slightly to carry water away from the window and not allow it to puddle. The sash can be stripped of paint using appropriate techniques, but if any heat treatment is used, the glass should be removed or protected from the sudden temperature change which can cause breakage. Repairing Old and Historic Windows explores these questions and provides detailed information on how to go about refurbishing windows within current preservation standards. Adding weather stripping and an interior or exterior storm window to a historic wood window in good repair will significantly improve its energy efficiency and the occupants’ comfort level without having to replace the entire unit. Attaching Weatherstripping Cut bronze strips to just fit the sides of the window frame and the bottom of the window. Some of the joints were filled with lead-paste. the pattern of the openings and their size; associated details such as arched tops, hoods, or other decorative elements. Broken parts can be remade or whole sashes can be duplicated. An overlay of aluminum foil on gypsum board or asbestos can protect the glass from such rapid temperature change. In the beginning of the eighteenth century single- and double-hung windows were introduced. Some degree of paint removal is also necessary as a first step in the proper surface preparation for subsequent refinishing (if paint color analysis is desired, it should be conducted prior to the onset of the paint removal). Many commercially available fungicides and wood preservatives are toxic, so it is extremely important to follow the manufacturer's recommendations for application, and store all chemical materials away from children and animals. Pieces can be repaired or replaced, and then reassembled. 22 Stucco However, the facts are something else. While I used modern epoxy materials on this repair, I have seen century-old sash dutchmen repairs still performing admirably. This occurs because the wood has far better insulating value than the metal, and in addition many historic windows have high ratios of wood to glass, thus reducing the area of highest heat transfer. Step 5: The stile socket is shaped with traditional woodworking tools. Most millwork firms can duplicate parts, such as muntins, bottom rails, or sills, which can then be incorporated into the existing window, but it may be necessary to shop around because there are several factors controlling the practicality of this approach. Thus, an important element of a building's significance will have been preserved for the future. 29 Slate Roofs Download this feature article to learn more about restoring and replacing historic wood windows. if removal is necessary, thoroughly investigate the structural detailing and seek appropriate professional consultation. significance is an important part of good conservation. Wood is frequently in sound physical condition beneath unsightly paint. Generally the actions necessary to return a window to "like new" condition will fall into three broad categories: These categories will be discussed in the following sections and will be referred to respectively as Repair Class I, Repair Class II, and Repair Class III. I have done wood-epoxy repairs like this that are still performing well after 37 years, but I have seen some wood-epoxy repairs that rotten out after just 10 or 20 years. 8 Getting the right advice When it comes to repairing a building, regardless of its age or size, it is important to know when specialist advice is needed and where to find the right help. Before making the decision, here are three things to consider. This is old-growth wood. The sash makers knew that the joints needed to flex and move a bit for long-term durability. This repair could be done without disassembling the sash. Step 1. Step 9. Byroads and other master carpenters specialize in repairing historic wood windows to avoid the torment of every preservationist: vinyl replacement windows. Write dozens of pages of specs. Finding CraftspeopleWho and where are these creative craftspeople? Local historical associations and state historic preservation offices may be good sources of information on products which have been used successfully in preservation projects. A non-thermal break, double-glazed metal window has a U-value of about 0.6. A few calls to local building suppliers may provide a source of appropriate replacement sash, but if not, check with local historical associations, the state historic preservation office, or preservation related magazines and supply catalogs for information. Some of the web versions of the Preservation Briefs differ somewhat from the printed versions. Rehab Right. Appropriate contemporary weatherstripping should be considered an integral part of the repair process for windows. Step. The Old House Web. We offer historic windows in several design shapes including rectangle, round-top, eyebrow and gothic. They can easily be taken apart to insert new rails or muntins (cross pieces separating the panes). A graphic or photographic system may be devised to record existing conditions and illustrate the scope of any necessary repairs. The stiles contain a female component called a mortise and the rails contain the male component called a Tenon.. Their size, placement, proportional relationship to the wall space, style, material, how light … Technical Preservation Services (TPS), National Park Service prepares standards, guidelines, and other educational materials on responsible historic preservation treatments for a broad public. It is possible, however, for the advanced do-it-yourselfer or craftsman with a table saw to duplicate moulding profiles using techniques discussed by Gordie Whittington in "Simplified Methods for Reproducing Wood Mouldings," Bulletin of the Association for Preservation Technology, Vol. First, is the labor and maintenance required on your old windows worthwhile? 19 Wooden Shingle Roofs When sills or other members exhibit surface weathering they may also be built-up using wood putties or homemade mixtures such as sawdust and resorcinol glue, or whiting and varnish. 38 Removing Graffiti New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. You need not sacrifice aesthetics or quality for efficiency if you choose our wood storms. I select for straight grain, all heartwood, even trying to match the growth ring count per inch. See Preservation Briefs 1–50 42 Cast Stone Note that most of the points mentioned in Repair Class I are routine maintenance items and should be provided in a regular maintenance program for any building. This is self-evident for ornamental windows, but it can be equally true for warehouses or factories where the windows may be the most dominant visual element of an otherwise plain building. 44 Awnings This would result in a “locked joint” that could not be disassembled in the future. Their design, craftsmanship, or other qualities may make them worthy of preservation. If severe deterioration exists in these areas, it will usually be apparent on visual inspection, but other less severely deteriorated areas of the wood may be tested by two traditional methods using a small ice pick. Reproducing historic wood windows involves dealing with many design details that don't exist in today's windows. Make a new mortise in the dutchman. The operations just discussed summarize the efforts necessary to restore a window with minor deterioration to "like new" condition. 20 Barns The emphasis is on craftspeople earning a living by doing best work, providing for the needs of the occupants and the building owner, while sustaining local economies.” – “National Window Preservation Standards,” 2013, page 6. III, No. Wood-Epoxy Repair: Embed two 3/16-in. Plan the RepairHere the sash has been deglazed (glass pane removed) and the heavy paint buildup has been removed so I can get a clear view of the damage. Following the inspection and analysis of the results, the scope of the necessary repairs will be evident and a plan for the rehabilitation can be formulated. Physical Evaluation 3. This Brief is based on the issues of significance and repair which are implicit in the standards, but the primary emphasis is on the technical issues of planning for the repair of windows including evaluation of their physical condition, techniques of repair, and design considerations when replacement is necessary. Hardened putty in the rabbets may be softened by heating with a soldering iron at the point of removal. Assure the craftsperson will be well paid. Even up the split wood surfaces. Step 3: Wood peg is tapped out of the joint with a drift pin. Removal of excess layers or peeling and flaking paint will facilitate operation of the window and restore the clarity of the original detailing. We believe that the repair and weatherization of existing wooden windows is more practical than most people realize, and that many windows are unfortunately replaced because of a lack of awareness of techniques for evaluation, repair, and weatherization. Before reinstalling the glass, a bead of glazing compound or linseed oil putty should be laid around the rabbet to cushion and seal the glass. Each successive repair class represents an increasing level of difficulty, expense, and work time. Our knowledge of New York City historic door details is unparalleled. The cost to repair each window drops dramatically once a glass professional is already on-site. Three techniques for repairing partially decayed or weathered wood are discussed in this section, and all three can be accomplished using products available at most hardware stores. Windows are an important architectural element in old houses. They were simply made with new wood lapped onto old wood as shown here, fastened with two wood screws and no adhesive. So, how can you specify this method for your projects? Profiles can be duplicated using hand molds, which are created by pressing a ball of patching compound over a sound section of the profile which has been rubbed with butcher's wax. The lead paste was used to keep water out of the joint and prevent decay. The technique is simply to jab the pick into a wetted wood surface at an angle and pry up a small section of the wood. Failure of the paint should not, however, be mistakenly interpreted as a sign that the wood is in poor condition and hence, irreparable. Repair Class II: Stabilization 5. Deteriorated putty should be removed manually, taking care not to damage the wood along the rabbet. Dutchman LayoutThe dutchman will lap onto adjacent sound wood. Any of the three techniques discussed can stabilize and restore the appearance of the window unit. All window units should be inspected to see if water is entering around the edges of the frame and, if so, the joints or seams should be caulked to eliminate this danger. Here I tap the wooden pegs out of the joint with a hammer and drift pin. A tradesperson can read the spec and install the product. New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, 1978 (chapter 26). In this case I decided to use the traditional wood dutchman method because of the historic nature of the sash. Step 9: The joint and sash are reassembled. 10 Paint Problems The wood was structurally sound but the window had one broken pane, many layers of paint, broken sash cords and inadequate, worn-out weatherstripping. To demonstrate the practicality of this approach, and photograph it, a Technical Preservation Services staff member repaired a wooden double-hung, two over two window which had been in service over ninety years. Some woodworking mills do not like to repair old sash because nails or other foreign objects in the sash can damage expensive knives (which cost far more than their profits on small repair jobs); others do not have cutting knives to duplicate muntin profiles. When parts of the frame or sash are so badly deteriorated that they cannot be stabilized there are methods which permit the retention of some of the existing or original fabric. Each individual piece can be repaired, restored, or replaced quite simply by the homeowner or local tradesman. 4 Roofing The surface of the consolidated wood can then be filled with a semirigid epoxy patching compound, sanded and painted. Even for projects requiring repairs identified in this section, if the percentage of parts replacement per window is low, or the number of windows requiring repair is small, repair can still be a cost effective solution. Technical Preservation Services recommends the retention and repair of original windows whenever possible. Morrison, Hugh. The techniques require more skill and are more expensive than any of the previously discussed alternatives. [6] Windows are an authentic part of a building - they are a character-defining feature. Brownstone Doors specializes in expertly crafted reproduction of historic doors, entryways and storefronts. The key to successful planning for window treatments is a careful evaluation of existing physical conditions on a unit-by-unit basis. 2 Repointing Mortar Joints The back putty on the interior side of the pane should also be inspected, because it creates a seal which prevents condensation from running down into the joinery. Photo: NPS files. Subsequently many styles of these vertical sliding sash windows have come to be associated with specific building periods or architectural styles, and this is an important consideration in determining the significance of windows, especially on a local or regional basis. All the remaining wood is sound. Photo: NPS files. Strip the old glazing and … The ones which do are usually in buildings which have been abandoned for long periods or have totally lacked maintenance for years. Although such locks will not always be historically accurate, they will usually be viewed as an acceptable contemporary modification in the interest of improved thermal performance. 1 Cleaning and Water-Repellent Treatments To further enhance energy saving qualities, a good storm window can be installed. Such sash are available as exact custom reproductions, reasonable facsimiles (custom windows with similar profiles), and contemporary wooden sash which are similar in appearance. Photo: NPS files. 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